Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging desalination technology extracting salts and minerals from saline water in a manner such that the consumed charges during electrode charging can be recaptured during electrode discharge, thereby allowing CDI to be an energy-efficient and less costly alternative technology for desalinating saline water.
Design and optimization of electrode materials play a pivotal role in the performance of CDI. Activated carbon (AC) has been a workhorse material for electrode fabrication in capacitive technologies, and tuning and tailoring AC properties have opened avenues for broadening the scope of applications. This review* traces the beneficial and also detrimental effects from various modifiers on AC electrodes concerning CDI performance. Furthermore, a comprehensive classification of CDI cells based on different architectural aspects with a comparative performance is presented. On this basis, the tradeoff between physical, chemical, electrochemical properties in the course of electrode modification and the interdependence between electrode design and CDI cell configuration are discussed with disclosing some prospective guidelines on AC electrode design. This review aims to raise the attention on the rational electrode design by taking into account all necessary features of the electrode in a given cell configuration.
(*) Ntakirutimana, S., Tan, W., Anderson, M.A., Wang, Y. Editors’ choice-review-activated carbon electrode design: engineering tradeoff with respect to capacitive deionization performance. (2020) Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 167 (14), art. no. 143501. DOI: 10.1149/1945-7111/abbfd7
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